I.  Preflight Preparation

A.  Performance and Limitations

B.  Operation of Systems

  • Primary flight controls and trim
  • Secondary flight controls
  • Powerplant and propellers
  • Landing gear
  • Fuel, oil, and hydraulic
  • Electrical and avionics
  • Pitot-static, vacuum, and associated flight instruments
  • Environmental
  • Deicing and anti-icing
  • Oxygen system

II.  Preflight Procedures

A. Preflight Assessment

  • Inspect the aircraft with reference to a checklist
  • Verify the aircraft is airworthy and in condition for safe flight

B.  Engine Starting

  • Use a checklist for engine start

C.  Before Takeoff Check

  • Review takeoff performance
  • Complete appropriate checklist
  • Divide attention between inside and outside cockpit
  • Verify temperature and pressures are suitable

III.  Takeoffs, Landings, Go-Arounds

A.  Normal Takeoff and Climb

  • Verify assigned/correct runway
  • Establish pitch attitude for Vy +/- 5 knots to safe altitude

B. Normal Approach and Landing

  • Stabilized approach at recommended airspeed +/- 5 knots
  • Touch down at or beyond within 200 feet of specified spot, within the first third of the runway

C.  Shortfield Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb

  • Establish a pitch attitude to maintain Vx +/- 5 knots until obstacles are cleared, or 50 feet above the surface

D.  Short Field Approach and Landing

  • Stabilized approach +/- 5 knots
  • Touch down at or beyond a specified point within 100 feet, no side-drift, with the longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway centerline

IV.  Performance Maneuver

A.  Steep Turns

  • Airspeed not to exceed maneuvering speed
  • Roll into a coordinated 360-degree steep turn with approximately 50 degrees of bank
  • Maintain entry altitude +/- 100 feet
  • Roll out on entry heading +/- 10 degrees
  • Airspeed +/- 10 knots
  • Bank angle +/- 5 degrees
  • Perform task in opposite direction

V. Slow Flight and Stalls

A.  Maneuvering During Slow Flight

  • Altitude 3000 feet AGL
  • Maintain altitude +/- 50 feet
  • Heading +/- 10 degrees
  • Airspeed +5/-0 knots
  • Specified bank +/- 5 degrees

B. Power Off Stalls

  • Altitude 3000 feet AGL
  • Establish a stabilized descent
  • Recover at the first indication of impending stall (buffet)
  • Heading +/- 10 degrees in straight flight
  • Maintain specified angle of bank, not to exceed 20 degrees, +/- 5 degrees
  • Retract landing gear after positive rate of climb
  • Accelerate to Vx or Vy prior to final flap retraction on recovery

C.  Power On Stalls

  • Altitude 3000 feet AGL
  • Establish power no less that 65%
  • Heading +/- 10 degrees in straight flight
  • Maintain specified angle of bank, not to exceed 20 degrees, +/- 5 degrees
  • Retract landing gear after positive rate of climb
  • Accelerate to Vx or Vy prior to final flap retraction on recovery

D.  Accelerated Stalls

  • Altitude 3000 feet AGL
  • Establish and maintain a coordinated 45 degree bank turn
  • Increase back elevator pressure smoothly and firmly until an impending stall is reached
  • Retract landing gear after a positive rate of climb
  • Accelerate to Vx or Vy prior to final flap retraction on recovery

E.  Spin Awareness

  • Aerodynamics of spins
  • How to recognize the entry, incipient, and developed phases of spins
  • Spin recovery procedure

VI.  Emergency Operations

A.  Emergency Descent

  • Use bank angle between 30 and 45 degrees to maintain positive load factor
  • Maintain appropriate airspeed +0/-10 knots
  • Level off at specified altitude +/- 100 feet

B.  Systems and Equipment Malfunctions (explain at least three)

  • Partial or complete engine power loss
  • Engine roughness or overheat
  • Carburetor or induction icing
  • Loss of oil pressure
  • Fuel starvation
  • Electrical malfunction
  • Vacuum pressure and associated instruments
  • Pitot-static instruments
  • Landing gear or flap malfunction
  • Electronic flight display malfunction
  • Inoperative trim
  • Smoke, fire or engine fire

C.  Engine Failure on Takeoff Before Vmc (simulated)

  • Maintain directional control
  • Close throttles smoothly and promptly upon engine failure

D.  Engine Failure After Liftoff (simulated)

  • Establish Vyse
  • Simulate feathering the inoperative engine
  • Examiner will establish zero-thrust
  • Bank toward the operating engine as required for best performance
  • Maintain heading +/- 10 degrees, airspeed +/- 5 knots

E.  Approach and Landing with Inoperative Engine (simulated)

  • Stabilized approach with recommended airspeed +/- 5 knots
  • Bank toward the operating engine for best performance
  • Touch down on the first third of the available runway, no side-drift, longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway centerline

VII.  Multiengine Operations

A.  Maneuvering with One Engine Inoperative

  • Maintain altitude +/- 100 feet, or minimum sink as appropriate
  • Heading +/- 10 degrees
  • Reduce drag by establishing and maintaining a bank toward the operating engine and proper inclinometer ball placement
  • Restart engine using checklist

B.  Vmc Demonstration

  • Maintain heading within +/- 20 degrees
  • Establish entry speed of Vsse + 10 knots
  • Reduce power on critical engine to idle
  • Establish a bank into the operating engine not to exceed 5 degrees
  • Increase pitch attitude to decrease airspeed at 1 knot per second, increasing rudder pressure to maintain directional control
  • Recover at the first sign of stall or loss of directional control by simultaneously decreasing power on operating engine and lowering pitch attitude
  • When airspeed has increased to Vyse, increase power on operating engine only

C.  Engine Failure During Flight by Reference to Instruments

  • Recognize engine failure, set engine controls, and feather the inoperative engine
  • Maintain heading +/- 10 degrees, altitude +/- 100 feet or minimum sink, airspeed +/- 10 knots

D.  Instrument Approach and Landing with One Engine Inoperative (simulated)

  • On final approach, maintain lateral and vertical guidance within 3/4-scale deflection
  • Recognize engine failure and set engine controls
  • Establish a rate of descent that will ensure arrival at DH or MDA from which a normal landing can be made on the intended runway,  either straight in or circling


I.  Preflight Preparation

A.  Performance and Limitations

  • Weight and balance
  • Performance charts

B.  Operation of Systems

  • Primary flight controls and trim
  • Secondary flight controls
  • Powerplant and propeller
  • Landing gear
  • Fuel, oil, and hydraulic
  • Electrical
  • Avionics
  • Pitot-static, pressure/vacuum and associated flight instruments
  • Environmental
  • Deicing and anti-icing
  • Oxygen system

II.  Preflight Procedures

A.  Preflight Assessment

  • Inspect the airplane with reference to a checklist
  • Verify the airplane is airworthy and in a condition for safe flight

B.  Flight Deck Management

  • Conduct a proper preflight briefing, to include seatbelts, emergency procedures, doors

C.  Engine Starting

  • Use of checklist

D.  Taxiing

  • Use of an airport diagram
  • Comply with airport taxiway markings
  • Maintain situational awareness
  • Perform brake check immediately after airplane starts moving
  • Position flight controls correctly for existing wind conditions

E.  Before Takeoff Check

  • Review takeoff performance
  • Verify temperatures and pressures are adequate
  • Divide attention between inside and outside the cockpit
  • Complete checklist

III.  Takeoffs, Landings, and Go-Arounds

A.  Normal Takeoff and Landing

  • Verify correct runway
  • Confirm takeoff power prior to rotation
  • Establish a pitch attitude to maintain Vy +10/-5 knots

B.  Normal Approach and Landing

  • Maintain recommended approach speed, or 1.3 Vso
  • Execute a timely go around if needed

C.  Short Field Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb

  • Maintain Vx +10/-5 knots until 50 feet above the surface
  • Accelerate to Vy +10/-5 knots and maintain to a safe maneuvering altitude

D.  Short Field Approach and Landing

  • Maintain approach speed, or 1.3 Vso +10/-5 knots
  • Touch down at specified point at or beyond within 200 feet
  • On center line, no side-drift, longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center line

IV.  Performance Maneuvers

A.  Steep Turns

  • Coordinated 360 degree turn in 45 degree bank
  • Altitude +/- 100 feet
  • Roll out on entry heading +/- 10 degrees
  • Airspeed +/- 10 knots
  • Bank angle +/- 5 degrees

V.  Slow Flight and Stalls

A.  Maneuvering During Slow Flight

  • 3000 feet AGL
  • Airspeed at which any further increase in pitch or load factor results in stall warning or buffet
  • Altitude +/- 100 feet, heading +/- 10 degrees, specified angle of bank +/- 10 degrees, airspeed +/- 10 knots

B.  Power Off Stalls

  • 3000 feet AGL
  • Heading +/- 10 degrees in straight flight, or specified angle of bank +/- 10 degrees, not to exceed 20 degrees
  • Retract gear after positive rate of climb
  • Accelerate to Vx or Vy before final flap retraction

C.  Power On Stalls

  • 3000 feet AGL
  • Heading +/- 10 degrees in straight flight, specified angle of bank +/- 10 degrees, not to exceed 20 degrees
  • Retract gear after positive rate of climb
  • Accelerate to Vx or Vy before final flap retraction

D.  Spin Awareness

VI.  Emergency Operations

A.  Emergency Descent

  • Use bank angle between 30 and 45 degrees to maintain positive load factor during descent

B.  Systems and Equipment Malfunction

  • Engine roughness or overheat
  • Carburetor or induction icing
  • Loss of oil pressure
  • Fuel starvation
  • Vacuum pressure or pitot-static instruments

C.  Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear

  • Brief passengers on the use of ELT, fire extinguisher, seat belts, doors

D.  Engine Failure During Takeoff Below Vmc

  • Close throttles smoothly upon engine failure
  • Maintain directional control

E.  Engine Failure After Liftoff

  • Recognize engine failure promptly and maintain control
  • Establish Vyse or Vmc + 5 knots if obstacles are present
  • Heading +/- 10 degrees, airspeed +/- 5 knots

F.  Approach and Landing with One Engine Inoperative (simulated)

  • Bank toward the operating engine as required for best performance
  • Touch down on the first third of the available runway, no side-drift, longitudinal axis aligned with and over the runway center line
  • Maintain the recommended approach speed +10/-5 knots

VII.  Multiengine Operations

A.  Maneuvering with One Engine Inoperative

  • Establish bank angle into the operating engine and proper ball placement on inclinometer
  • Maintain altitude +/- 100 feet, or minimum sink rate; heading +/- 10 degrees
  • Restart the inoperative engine using checklist

B.  Vmc Demonstration

  • Set the power on the critical engine at idle, with full power on the operating engine
  • Establish a climb attitude at Vyse + 10 knots; pitch up to reduce airspeed at the rate of 1 knot per second
  • Recover by simultaneously reducing power on the operating engine and lowering pitch attitude
  • Once airspeed has increase to Vyse, increase power on the operating engine only
  • On recovery, maintain heading +/- 20 degrees

C.  Engine Failure During Flight by Reference to Instruments

  • Heading +/- 10 degrees, altitude +/- 100 feet or minimum sink rate

D.  Instrument Approach and Landing with One Engine Inoperative (simulated)

  • Recognize engine failure, set engine controls, reduce drag, identify and verify the inoperative engine
  • Vertical and lateral course deviation indicators less than 3/4-scale deflection

I.  Technical Subject Areas  (tasks B, M, and at least one other) 

A.  Aeromedical Factors

B.  Runway Incursion Avoidance

C.  Visual Scanning and Collision Avoidance

D.  Principles of Flight

E.  Airplane Flight Controls

F.  Airplane Weight and Balance

G.  Navigation and Flight Planning

H.  Night Operations

I.  High Altitude Operations

J.  14 CFR and Publications

K.  National Airspace System

L.  Navigation Aids and Radar Services

M.  Logbook Entries and Certificate Endorsements

II.  Preflight Procedures (at least one task)

A.  Preflight Inspection

B.  Cockpit Management

C.  Engine Starting

D.  Taxiing

III.  Takeoffs, Landings, Go-Arounds (at least 2 takeoffs and 2 landings)

A.  Normal and Crosswind Takeoff and Climb

B.  Short Field Takeoff and Maximum Performance Climb

C.  Normal and Crosswind Approach and Landing

D.  Go-Around Rejected Landing

E.  Short Field Approach and Landing

IV.  Performance Maneuvers

A.  Steep Turns

V.  Slow Flight and Stalls (at least one task)

A.  Maneuvering During Slow Flight

B.  Power On Stalls

C.  Power Off Stalls

D.  Accelerated Maneuver Stalls

VI.  Emergency Operations (B or C, D, and one other)

A.  Systems and Equipment Malfunction

B.  Engine Failure During Takeoff Below Vmc

C.  Engine Failure After Liftoff

D.  Approach and Landing with Inoperative Engine

E.  Emergency Descent

F.  Emergency Equipment and Survival Gear

VII.  Multiengine Operations (D, E, and one other task)

A.  Operation of Systems

B.  Performance and Limitations

C.  Flight Principles--Engine Inoperative

  • Meaning of the term "Critical Engine"
  • Effects of density altitude on Vmc demonstration
  • Effects of airplane weight and center of gravity on control
  • Effects of bank angle on Vmc
  • Relationship of Vmc to stall speed
  • Reasons for loss of directional control
  • Indications of loss of directional control
  • Importance of maintaining the proper pitch and bank attitude, and the proper coordination of controls
  • Loss of directional control recovery procedures
  • Engine failure during takeoff including planning, decisions, and single-engine operations

D.  Maneuvering with One Engine Inoperative

E.  Vmc Demonstration

F.  Demonstrating the Effects of Various Airspeeds and Configurations During Engine              Inoperative Performance